Background - Aseptic loosening of massive bone tumor implants is a major cause of prosthesis failure. Evidence suggests that an osteointegrated hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated collar would reduce the incidence of aseptic loosening around the cemented intramedullary stem in distal femoral bone tumor prostheses. Because these implants often are used in young patients with a tumor, such treatment might extend the longevity of tumor implants. Questions/purposes We asked whether (1) HA-coated collars were more likely to osteointegrate; (2) HA collars were associated with fewer progressive radiolucent lines around the stem-cement interface; and (3) HA-coated collars were associated with less bone loss at the bone-shoulder implant junction?
Methods - Twenty-two patients were pair-matched to one of two groups--either (1) implants with a HA-coated ingrowth collar (HA Collar Group); or (2) implants without an ingrowth collar (Noncollar Group). Age, sex, and length of followup were similar in both groups. HA-coated collars were developed and used at our institution from 1992 to address the high failure rate attributable to aseptic loosening in patients with massive bone tumor implants. Before this, smooth titanium shafts were used routinely adjacent to bone at the transection site. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 7 years; range, 2-12 years). Radiographs obtained throughout the followup period were analyzed and osteointegration at the shaft of the implant quantified. Radiolucent line progression around the cemented stem was semi-quantitatively assessed and cortical bone loss at the bone-shoulder implant junction was measured during the followup period.
Results - Comparison of the most recent radiographs showed nine of 11 patients had osteointegrated HA collars, whereas only one patient in the Noncollar Group had osteointegration (p > 0.001). The radiolucent line score quantified around the cemented stem was lower in the HA Collar Group when compared with the Noncollar Group (p = 0.001). Results showed an increase in cortical bone loss at the bone-shoulder implant junction in the Noncollar Group when compared with the HA Collar Group (p < 0.001).
Conclusions - Osteointegration at the implant collar resulted in fewer radiolucent lines adjacent to the intramedullary cemented stem and decreased cortical bone loss immediately adjacent to the transection site. These results suggest that the HA collar may help reduce the risk of aseptic loosening in patients with this type of implant, but longer followup and a larger prospective comparison series are necessary to prove this more definitively.
- Bone Neoplasms
- Coated Materials, Biocompatible
- Femoral Neoplasms
- Middle Aged
- Prostheses and Implants
- Prosthesis Failure