Targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have advanced the treatment landscape of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) over the last decade. While checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated survival benefit and are currently approved in the front-line and second-line settings, primary and secondary resistance is common. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of immune evasion in RCC is therefore critical to the development of effective combination treatment strategies. This article reviews the current understanding of the different, yet coordinated, mechanisms adopted by RCC cells to evade immune killing; summarizes various aspects of clinical translation thus far, including the currently registered RCC clinical trials exploring agents in combination with checkpoint inhibitors; and provides perspectives on the current landscape and future directions for the field.
- renal cancer
- immune evasion