In Vitro evaluation of pore size graded bone scaffolds with different material composition

Evangelos Daskalakis, Boyang Huang, Mohamed H Hassan, Abdalla M Omar, Cian Vyas, Anil A Acar, Ali Fallah, Glen Cooper, Andrew Weightman, Gordon Blunn, Bahattin Koç, Paulo Bartolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The demand for biomimetic and biocompatible scaffolds in equivalence of structure and material composition for the regeneration of bone tissue is relevantly high. This article is investigating a novel three-dimensional (3D) printed porous structure called bone bricks with a gradient pore size mimicking the structure of the bone tissue. Poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) combined with ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and bioglass 45S5 were successfully mixed using a melt blending method and fabricated with the use of screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Bone bricks containing the same material concentration (20 wt%) were biologically characterized through proliferation and differentiation tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of cells on the surface of bone bricks, whereas energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy was used to investigate the element composition on the surface of the bone bricks. Confocal imaging was used to investigate the number of differentiated cells on the surface of bone bricks. Proliferation results showed that bone bricks containing PCL/HA content are presenting higher proliferation properties, whereas differentiation results showed that bone bricks containing PCL/Bioglass 45S5 are presenting higher differentiation properties. Confocal imaging results showed that bone bricks containing PCL/Bioglass 45S5 are presenting a higher number of differentiated cells on their surface compared with the other material contents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e718-e730
Journal3D printing and additive manufacturing
Volume11
Issue number2
Early online date22 Dec 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024

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