Inclusive Mobility as a Service (MaaS): key performance indicators and a conceptual framework for evaluation

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Improving mobility for all including vulnerable social groups is one of the key elements for inclusive and sustainable development according to the UN’s sustainable development goals. The Mobility as a Service (MaaS) system is one example of rapidly growing smart mobility applications and has the potential to improve sustainability by changing the individual's travel behaviour towards more sustainable transportation modes. Recently, the MaaS Inclusion Index (MaaSINI) has been proposed by researchers to evaluate the inclusivity of MaaS systems considering vulnerable social groups’ needs. However, this index has not considered key performance indicators (KPIs) in terms of social inclusion. In this study, a range of innovative KPIs are developed and a multi-criteria decision analysis framework is proposed to evaluate the accessibility and inclusion of MaaS. The proposed KPIs are linked with the universal design principles considering transportation infrastructure, accessibility data, user interface, routing, and payment options. The functionality of the proposed framework has been demonstrated through a scenario analysis. The multi-criteria framework and policy recommendations proposed in this study will shed light on guiding stakeholders and policymakers to select and implement an inclusive and equitable MaaS system.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Proceedings of the ICoMaaS2022 Conference
PublisherTampere University
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2022
Event3rd International Conference on Mobility as a Service - ICoMaaS
- Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
Duration: 29 Nov 202230 Nov 2022


Conference3rd International Conference on Mobility as a Service - ICoMaaS
Abbreviated titleICoMaaS2022
Internet address


  • Accessible MaaS
  • Inclusive MaaS
  • multi-criteria decision aiding (MCDA)
  • social inclusion
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • conceptual framework
  • mobility as a service
  • Solent Future Transport Zone
  • accessible transport
  • accessible digital platform


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