Influence of acid concentration and etching time on composite cement adhesion to lithium-silicate glass ceramics

Riccardo Fabian Fonzar*, Cecilia Goracci, Michele Carrabba, Chris Louca, Marco Ferrari, Alessandro Vichi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To evaluate the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration and etching time on the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of RelyX Unicem 2 (3M Oral Care) to VITA Suprinity (Vita Zahnfabrik; zirconia-reinforced lithium-silicate glass ceramic: ZLS) and IPS e. max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent; lithium-disilicate glass ceramic: LD). 

Materials and Methods: Forty-eight bars each were fabricated of ZLS and LD with Cerec InLab MC-XL. For each material, 8 groups were formed with respect to etching time (20, 40, 60, 120 s) and HF concentration (4.9% and 9.5%). In each group, after etching and silanization, 15 cylindrical specimens of RelyX Unicem 2 were built up for μSBS testing with a special device. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA. Failure modes were assessed using an optical stereomicroscope, classified as adhesive, cohesive in resin or ceramic, or mixed. Failure modes were statistically analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test. One bar per group was prepared for SEM observation of the etched surface. 

Results: ZLS showed significantly higher bond strengths than LD (p < 0.001). Etchant concentration was an influential factor with superior strengths after 4.9% HF etching (p = 0.009). Etching time did not significantly affect adhesion (p = 0.066). The material-etching interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.004). Particularly for ZLS, 4.9% HF etching obtained significantly higher bond strengths than did 9.5%. By using 4.9% HF, adhesion was significantly higher on ZLS than on LD. 

Conclusion: Material and HF concentration influenced the adhesion between RelyX Unicem 2 composite cement and lithium-silicate glass ceramics. Etching time was not an influential factor. The use of 4.9% HF for 20 s proved to be the most effective etching treatment of the intaglio surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-182
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Adhesive Dentistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2020


  • Hydrofluoric acid
  • IPS e. max CAD
  • Microshear bond strength
  • VITA suprinity


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