Influence of thickness of opaque porcelain and alloy color on the final color of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations

Alessandro Vichi, Gabriele Corciolani, Michele Carrabba, Alvaro Munoz, Chris Louca

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Despite the advent of metal-free solutions, porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations (PFM) are still widely used. Particularly for the latest ceramic systems, scarce information is present in the scientific literature about the ideal opaque layer thickness and the alloy color impact to achieve the desired final color of PFM restorations. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of opaque thickness variation layered on different metal alloys on the final color of PFM restorations. Opaque porcelain of one metal–ceramic system (VITA VM13) was layered in four different thicknesses (0.10 mm, 0.15 mm, 0.20 mm, and 0.25 mm) on three differently colored dental alloys: a gold–platinum alloy (yellowish), a gold–palladium alloy (light grayish), and a nickel–chromium alloy (dark grayish). The veneering porcelain layered over the opaque was kept constant (Base Dentine 0.45 mm, Transpa Dentine 0.50 mm, and Enamel 0.20 mm). Sixty specimens were fabricated, five samples for each combination of alloy/opaque thickness. The color difference (ΔE) between specimen and reference was measured using a clinical spectrophotometer. The two-way ANOVA revealed that the thickness of both the opaque (p < 0.001) and the metal alloy (p < 0.001) significantly influenced the ΔE values. Gray-colored alloys covered by a 0.10 mm thick opaque layer enabled the closest color match, whereas this occurred for yellow-color alloys covered by a 0.15 mm thick opaque layer. In contrast, the samples covered by a 0.25 mm thick opaque layer obtained the worst ΔE.
Original languageEnglish
Article number457
Number of pages9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jan 2023


  • color
  • opaque
  • ceramics
  • PFM
  • alloy

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