Influences on development in infant chimpanzees: enculturation temperament, and cognition

K. A. Bard, K. H. Gardner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


For decades, there has been discussion about whether chimpanzees Pan troglodytes possess cultural traditions, and whether there are differences between groups in behavioral communicative expressions. In this chapter the authors discuss the process by which environmental influences impinge on a developing individual (enculturation). The authors decided to tackle this topic under the rubric of culture because of recent discussions suggesting that human 'enculturation' creates new cognitive abilities in apes that otherwise would not exist. Results from studies of newborn chimpanzees suggest that environmental influences can differentially affect behavioral organization as early as the first 30 days of life. The authors illuminate some of the variables that underlie enculturation or socialization processes in order to better understand the manner in which behavioral performances are being changed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationReaching into thought
Subtitle of host publicationThe minds of the great apes
EditorsAnne E. Russon, Kim A Bard, Sue Taylor Parker
PublisherCambridge University Press
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)0 521 64496 8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1996


Dive into the research topics of 'Influences on development in infant chimpanzees: enculturation temperament, and cognition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this