Inter-limb asymmetry in the kinematic parameters of the long jump approach run in female Paralympic-level class T63/T64 athletes

Adrian Garcia-Fresneda, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Josep-Maria Padulies Riu, Miguel Angel Torralba Jordan, Jose Luis Lopez-del Amo, Xavier Padulies, Timothy Exell, Mariana Kotzamanidou, Dimitrios Metaxiotis, Apostolos S. Theodorou

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-limb asymmetry in the kinematic parameters of the approach run in elite-level female Class T63/T64 long jumpers and its relationship to performance. Three Class T63 and nine Class T64 female long jumpers were examined during a competition. The temporal and kinematic parameters of their approach steps (step length: SL; step frequency: SF; average step velocity: SV) were measured using a panning video method and speed radar. The symmetry angle was the measure of inter-limb asymmetry. The results revealed that SF and SV were significantly (p < 0.05) larger in the intact lower limb. Significant (p < 0.05) asymmetry was revealed for SL, SF, and SV in 2/12, 3/12, and 1/12 jumpers, respectively. The direction of asymmetry for SF was towards the leg wearing the prosthesis for all examined jumpers. The official jump distance was significantly (p < 0.05) positively correlated with the maximum velocity attained during the approach and negatively correlated with the symmetry angle for SF. It is concluded that the observed asymmetry in SF was compensated for by the modifications observed in the SL that consequently resulted in no asymmetry in SV, leading the participants to effectively utilize their approach speed optimally in terms of long jump performance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-156
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024


  • paralympics
  • track and field
  • sport performance
  • lower limb prosthesis
  • inter-limb asymmetry
  • laterality
  • biomechanical analysis
  • step kinematics

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