Introducing time-delays to analyze driver reaction times when using a powered wheelchair

David Sanders, Malik Haddad*, Martin Langner, Peter Omoarebun, John Chiverton, Mohamed Hassan, Shikun Zhou, Boriana Vatchova

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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This paper investigates the introduction of time-delays into wheelchair driving. Two dissimilar ways in which wheelchair drivers interact are compared. Users were observed as they drove their wheelchairs with and without time-delays. Tests took place with a computer system and sensors which provided assistance and then without any assistance provided. As delays became longer then drivers found it more difficult to drive. If the wheelchair moved through a more complicated environment or if the time-delay was made longer, then driving was better if the computer and sensors assisted. Time delays were introduced between the motor controller and the wheelchair joystick. With shorter time-delays or in simpler environments then less assistance was needed from the computer system and sensors. In more complicated environments or if time-delays were longer, then more assistance was needed. That suggest varying sensor support could be helpful depending on the complexity of the environment or the difficulties being experienced by the drivers.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntelligent Systems and Applications
Subtitle of host publicationIntelliSys Volume 3
EditorsKohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor, Rahul Bhatia
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-55190-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-55189-6
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2020
EventIntelligent Systems Conference - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 3 Sept 20204 Sept 2020

Publication series

NameAdvances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
ISSN (Print)2194-5357
ISSN (Electronic)2194-5365


ConferenceIntelligent Systems Conference
Abbreviated titleIntelliSys 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • Intelligent
  • Sensor
  • Time-delay
  • Ultra-sonic
  • Wheelchair
  • RCUK
  • EP/S005927/1


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