IoT-BIM and blockchain integration for enhanced data traceability in offsite manufacturing

Roberto Brandín, Sepehr Abrishami*

*Corresponding author for this work

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The transformation of dynamic supply chains within the realm of offsite manufacturing presents a unique and compelling opportunity to effectively respond to shifts in market demand. However, this paradigm shift also entails novel challenges and prospects for streamlining processes, augmenting efficiency, and ultimately driving success across production workflows and logistical operations. Dynamic supply chains necessitate unimpeded access to high-quality, dependable data to facilitate real-time, data-driven decision-making. Furthermore, owing to their inherently intricate nature, these supply chains are subject to a heightened vulnerability to disruptions and delays, surpassing those encountered in traditional supply chains. Against this backdrop, this paper proposes a framework that synthesises the convergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), Building Information Modelling (BIM), and blockchain technology (BCT) into a cohesive and integrated system, thereby optimising the efficiency and transparency of supply chain management operations. The proposed framework takes cognisance of the challenges inherent in ensuring information traceability, mitigating fragmented information, enhancing interoperability, and fortifying reliability throughout the design, production, and implementation phases of assets within dynamic supply chains operating in the offsite manufacturing domain. To illustrate the efficacy of our proposition, we present a framework that exemplifies the seamless integration of a permissioned, open-source distributed ledger, which forms the bedrock of our support infrastructure for IoT and BIM integration. Through rigorous analysis, we showcase the effectiveness of the developed framework in the form of a designed Supply Chain Management Model (SCMM-PDO), which harmonises the physical, digital, and operational layers within a robust system architecture (BCT.IoT-BIM). The integration of these technologies provides a decentralised solution, reinforcing supply chains with improved security, reliability, and quality control mechanisms, thus enhancing the efficiency of the supply chain network. It is anticipated that this transformative integration will yield substantial improvements in key performance indicators (KPIs) such as operational efficiency, cost reduction, and the cultivation of trust and accountability across supply chain activities. The research proposes an IoT and BIM conceptual framework that simulates the dynamic supply chain operations, facilitating real-time analysis and prediction of supply chain participants' behaviours from resources, processes, and assets. Furthermore, the integration of IoT-BIM (digital twinning) with a blockchain-based system, such as Hyperledger Fabric, engenders a secure and transparent framework for the diligent tracking of assets and information throughout the supply chain. The findings of this study offer an all-encompassing conceptual framework for the secure and transparent tracking of asset information by integrating Blockchain-based technologies with IoT and BIM. This research endeavour thus expands the existing body of knowledge, establishing a foundation for future investigations within this proliferating field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105266
Number of pages24
JournalAutomation in Construction
Early online date13 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024


  • Blockchain Technology (BCT)
  • Building Information Modelling (BIM)
  • cloud computing
  • fog computing
  • Hyperledger Fabric (HLF)
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Offsite Manufacturing (OSM)
  • Supply Chain Management (SCM)

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