LAMED — A PRNG for EPC Class-1 Generation-2 RFID specification

P. Peris-Lopez, Julio Hernandez-Castro, J. Estevez-Tapiador, A. Ribagorda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


RFID is a relatively heterogenous radio technology, where it is necessary to put an extra effort on security and privacy-related issues. As early as 2004, some authors suggested the use of a PRNG for increasing security. This was later questioned because many thought a PRNG implementation may go well beyond the very limited computational capabilities of low-cost RFID tags. However, its use has been ratified by EPCGlobal (EPC Class-1 Generation-2) and ISO (ISO/IEC 18000-6C). This motivates our proposal of a new PRNG, named LAMED, which is compliant with the standards and successfully passes several batteries of very demanding randomness tests (ENT, DIEHARD, NIST, and SEXTON). A study of its hardware complexity shows that LAMED can be implemented with slightly less than 1.6 K gates, and that pseudo-random numbers can be generated each 1.8 ms. So we can affirm this is a realist proposal both conforming with the EPC-G1C2 standard, and suitable for low-cost RFID tags.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-97
Number of pages10
JournalComputer Standards & Interfaces
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2009


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