Lensed Type Ia Supernova “Encore” at z = 2: the first instance of two multiply imaged supernovae in the same host galaxy

J. D.R. Pierel, A. B. Newman, S. Dhawan, M. Gu, B. A. Joshi, T. Li, S. Schuldt, L. G. Strolger, S. H. Suyu, G. B. Caminha, S. H. Cohen, J. M. Diego, J. C.J. DŚilva, S. Ertl, B. L. Frye, G. Granata, C. Grillo, A. M. Koekemoer, J. Li, A. RobothamJ. Summers, T. Treu, R. A. Windhorst, A. Zitrin, S. Agarwal, A. Agrawal, N. Arendse, S. Belli, C. Burns, R. Cañameras, S. Chakrabarti, W. Chen, T. E. Collett, D. A. Coulter, R. S. Ellis, M. Engesser, N. Foo, O. D. Fox, C. Gall, N. Garuda, S. Gezari, S. Gomez, K. Glazebrook, J. Hjorth, X. Huang, S. W. Jha, P. S. Kamieneski, P. Kelly, C. Larison, L. A. Moustakas, M. Pascale, I. Pérez-Fournon, T. Petrushevska, F. Poidevin, A. Rest, M. Shahbandeh, A. J. Shajib, M. Siebert, C. Storfer, M. Talbot, Q. Wang, T. Wevers, Y. Zenati

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A bright (m F150W,AB = 24 mag), z = 1.95 supernova (SN) candidate was discovered in JWST/NIRCam imaging acquired on 2023 November 17. The SN is quintuply imaged as a result of strong gravitational lensing by a foreground galaxy cluster, detected in three locations, and remarkably is the second lensed SN found in the same host galaxy. The previous lensed SN was called “Requiem,” and therefore the new SN is named “Encore.” This makes the MACS J0138.0−2155 cluster the first known system to produce more than one multiply imaged SN. Moreover, both SN Requiem and SN Encore are Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), making this the most distant case of a galaxy hosting two SNe Ia. Using parametric host fitting, we determine the probability of detecting two SNe Ia in this host galaxy over a ∼10 yr window to be ≈3%. These observations have the potential to yield a Hubble constant (H 0) measurement with ∼10% precision, only the third lensed SN capable of such a result, using the three visible images of the SN. Both SN Requiem and SN Encore have a fourth image that is expected to appear within a few years of ∼2030, providing an unprecedented baseline for time-delay cosmography.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL37
Number of pages9
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Issue number2
Early online date29 May 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2024

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