lenstronomy II: A gravitational lensing software ecosystem

Simon Birrer, Anowar J. Shajib, Daniel Gilman, Aymeric Galan, Jelle Aalbers, Martin Millon, Robert Morgan, Giulia Pagano, Ji Won Park, Luca Teodori, Nicolas Tessore, Madison Ueland, Lyne Van de Vyvere, Sebastian Wagner-Carena, Ewoud Wempe, Lilan Yang, Xuheng Ding, Thomas Schmidt, Dominique Sluse, Ming ZhangAdam Amara

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lenstronomy is an Astropy-affiliated Python package for gravitational lensing simulations and analyses. lenstronomy was introduced by Birrer and Amara (2018) and is based on the linear basis set approach by Birrer et a. (2015). The user and developer base of lenstronomy has substantially grown since then, and the software has become an integral part of a wide range of recent analyses, such as measuring the Hubble constant with time-delay strong lensing or constraining the nature of dark matter from resolved and unresolved small scale lensing distortion statistics. The modular design has allowed the community to incorporate innovative new methods, as well as to develop enhanced software and wrappers with more specific aims on top of the lenstronomy API. Through community engagement and involvement, lenstronomy has become a foundation of an ecosystem of affiliated packages extending the original scope of the software and proving its robustness and applicability at the forefront of the strong gravitational lensing community in an open source and reproducible manner.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3283
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Open Source Software
Issue number62
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jun 2021


  • astro-ph.CO
  • astro-ph.GA
  • astro-ph.IM


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