Measurement of eye-gaze in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

E. Bethell, S. Vick, Kim Bard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gaze cues are used as an index of social cognition in primates, yet the sensitivity to different forms of gaze, and consequently the cues required to test gaze-following abilities remain understudied. Whereas the eye is attributed special signal value in humans, the camouflaged ocular morphology of non-human primates has led to the consensus that head orientation may be a more salient cue. This study presents the first documentation of the surface eye movements of the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, in order to determine the behavioral forms of eye-gaze and their saliency as signals, document their functional variation, and address the signal value of the eyes distinct from head orientation. Movements of the eye were identified as Scan (continuous movement), Glance (a single movement
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-575
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Primatology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2007


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