The effects of cooling rate on microstructure and microtexture development during solidification of IN713C nickel-based superalloy have been studied with a range of cooling rate from 0.3 °C/s to 4°C/s (air cooled). The results showed an increase in grain size (from 140 µm to 2 mm) and carbides volume fraction (1.3% to 2%) with increasing cooling rate. It was also found that primary γ’ size decreased with increasing cooling rate. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the dendrite structure was weakened with decreasing cooling rate. The dendrite structure was nearly eliminated at slowest cooling rate applied here (0.3 °C/s). Eutectic clusters that mainly consisted of large γ’, Ni7Zr2, M3B2 type boride and/or MC-type carbide precipitates were identified in air cooled samples. These undesirable clusters presented specific morphologies and their density (volume fraction) was found to decrease with decreasing cooling rate. Moreover, predominant phase separation of γ’ is observed in the slowest cooling sample and in interdendritic areas in the fastest cooling sample. Hardness test results showed a slight decrease in hardness with decreasing cooling rate. This may result from the combined effects of detrimental effect of larger γ’ and beneficial effect of smaller grain size in slowest cooling sample. The observations demonstrated here can contribute greatly to the modification of standard investment casting parameters that applied during IN713C turbine wheels production for turbochargers.
- cooling rate
- phase structure