Modelling and analysis of surface evolution on turning of hard-to-cut CLARM 30NiCrMoV14 steel alloy

Syed Muhammad Raza, Aqib Mashood Khan, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Asif Iqbal, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin, Kamil Leksycki

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Industrial practitioners are working on predictive solutions for the precise evaluation of input parameters and processed surfaces of engineering materials. To aid the aeronautical industry, this study is an effort to develop the mathematical modelling for comprehensive surface analysis of input parameters and surface finish after dry machining of CLARM HBR, a steel alloy with attractive mechanical properties and wide applications in large caliber gun barrels and high-pressure vessels. Feed rate, rotational speed, and depth of cut were taken as quantitative parameters, whereas machining time was considered as a categorical factor with a classification of three levels. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central component design has been used for the constitution of the experimental design, mathematical modelling, and analysis of developed models. Eighteen samples were prepared to perform the experimentation for the development of prediction models. The adequacy of the developed models was verified using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the models were validated using confirmatory trial experiments, which revealed the experimental results agreeing with predictions. The feed rate was the most significant parameter in achieving the desired surface finish. An increase in rotational speed at a low feed rate resulted in very fine surface texture, as though it deteriorated the surface finish at higher feed rates. The superior surface quality obtained was 0.137 μm at parametric settings of 0.19 mm/rev feed, 90 rpm speed, 3 mm depth of cut, and 4 min time. Overall, higher values of surface roughness were frecorded in the third level of process variable time. The developed empirical models are expected to aid manufacturers and machining practitioners in the prediction of the desired surface finish concerning different parameters before the experimentations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1751
Number of pages16
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2021


  • turning
  • feed rate
  • rotational speed
  • depth of cut
  • surface roughness
  • response surface methodology


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