A combined geochronological and petrological study of pelitic migmatites from the northwestern flank of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis has constrained the timing and P–T conditions of two high-grade metamorphic events that affected the south Lhasa block (Asian margin) and provides new insight into the tectonothermal evolution of the India–Asia collision. U(–Th)–Pb dating of in situ monazite shows that upper amphibolite-facies sillimanite-grade metamorphism and consequent partial melting occurred between c. 71 and 50 Ma at P–T conditions above 6.3 ± 1.2 kbar and 750 ± 30 °C. Further partial melting at upper amphibolite-facies kyanite-grade conditions occurred between c. 44 and 33 Ma at minimum P–T conditions of 10.4 ± 1.0 kbar and 698 ± 20 °C. These data are interpreted to record a south Lhasa block mid-crustal sillimanite-grade melting event in the Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene related to regional heat advection caused by coeval and prolonged emplacement of Gangdese batholith units. This was followed by a higher pressure and lower temperature kyanite-grade melting event during the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene associated with deformation and crustal thickening in the south Lhasa block, coeval with kyanite-grade metamorphism along the Himalaya, as a result of the on-going India–Asia collision. These partially-melted crustal lithologies offer potential sources (or otherwise analogs for sources) for the Miocene emplacement of adakitic intrusions previously documented in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis region.