Materials and Methods - We used Macaque Facial Action Coding System, an anatomically based and hence more objective tool, to quantify “silent bared‐teeth” (SBT) expressions produced by wild crested macaques engaging in spontaneous behavior, and utilized discriminant analysis and bootstrapping analysis to look for morphological differences between SBT produced in four different contexts, defined by the outcome of interactions: Affiliation, Copulation, Play, and Submission.
Results - We found that SBT produced in these contexts could be distinguished at significantly above‐chance rates, indicating that the expressions produced in these four contexts differ morphologically. We identified the specific facial movements that were typically used in each context, and found that the variability and intensity of facial movements also varied between contexts.
Discussion - These results indicate that nonhuman primate facial expressions share the human characteristic of exhibiting meaningful subtle differences. Complexity of facial communication may not be accurately represented simply by building repertoires of distinct expressions, so further work should attempt to take this subtle variability into account.
- facial action coding system
- facial expression
- silent bared-teeth
- social behavior
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Dataset for 'Morphological variants of silent bared‐teeth displays have different social interaction outcomes in crested macaques (Macaca nigra)'.
Clark, P. (Creator), Waller, B. (Creator), Burrows, A. M. (Creator), Julle-Danière, E. (Creator), Agil, M. (Creator), Engelhardt, A. (Creator) & Micheletta, J. (Creator), Figshare, 9 Aug 2020