Africa’s natural assets and associated contributions to people are underutilised in some areas, but are generally in decline due to a range of natural and human activities (well established). Use and distribution of water resources are uneven among both water-scarce and water-rich regions, countries and communities, and remains, in certain areas, a source of conflict. Africa has abundant and diversified energy sources, including oil and gas and clean energy; but access remains uneven. Renewable energies could provide economically and environmentally attractive alternatives for many countries, while realisation of hydropower potential has remained limited. Despite the presence of a significant portion of the world’s arable uncultivated lands, both food production and access experience patterns of constraint in certain areas. Furthermore, little value is added to agriculture, forest, agroforest, livestock and fishery products through industrialisation and processing.