Ethanol (EtOH) is a socially-accepted drug, whose consumption is a risk factor for non-intentional injuries, development of pathologies, and addiction. In the brain, EtOH affects redox signaling and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after acute and chronic exposures. Here, using a high-resolution respirometry assay, we investigated whether changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics play a role in both acute and chronic EtOH-mediated neurochemical responses in zebrafish. For the first time, we showed that acute and chronic EtOH exposures differently affect brain mitochondrial function. Acutely, EtOH stimulated mitochondrial respiration through increased baseline state, CI-mediated OXPHOS, OXPHOS capacity, OXPHOS coupling efficiency, bioenergetic efficiency, and ROX/ETS ratio. Conversely, EtOH chronically decreased baseline respiration, complex I- and II-mediated ETS, as well as increased ROX state and ROX/ETS ratio, which are associated with ROS formation. Overall, we observed that changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics play a role, at least partially, in both acute and chronic effects of EtOH in the zebrafish brain. Moreover, our findings reinforce the face, predictive, and construct validities of zebrafish models to explore the neurochemical bases involved in alcohol abuse and alcoholism.