Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent symptom complex characterised by symptoms of urinary urgency, increased frequency, nocturia, with or without urge incontinence in the absence of proven infection or other obvious pathology. The underlying pathophysiology of idiopathic OAB is not clearly known and the existence of several phenotypes has been proposed. Current diagnostic approaches are based on discordant measures, suffer from subjectivity and are incapable of detecting the proposed OAB phenotypes. In this study, cluster analysis was used as an objective approach for phenotyping participants based on their OAB characteristic symptoms and led to the identification of a low OAB symptomatic score group (cluster 1) and a high OAB symptomatic score group (cluster 2). Furthermore, the ability of several potential OAB urinary biomarkers including ATP, ACh, nitrite, MCP-1 and IL-5 and participants’ confounders, age and gender, in predicting the identified high OAB symptomatic score group was assessed. A combination of urinary ATP and IL-5 plus age and gender was shown to have clinically acceptable and improved diagnostic accuracy compared to urodynamically-observed detrusor overactivity. Therefore, this study provides the foundation for the development of novel non-invasive diagnostic tools for OAB phenotypes that may lead to personalised treatment.