An updated flow pattern map was developed for CO2 on the basis of the previous Cheng–Ribatski–Wojtan–Thome CO2 flow pattern map [1,2] to extend the flow pattern map to a wider range of conditions. A new annular flow to dryout transition (A–D) and a new dryout to mist flow transition (D–M) were proposed here. In addition, a bubbly flow region which generally occurs at high mass velocities and low vapor qualities was added to the updated flow pattern map. The updated flow pattern map is applicable to a much wider range of conditions: tube diameters from 0.6 to 10 mm, mass velocities from 50 to 1500 kg/m2 s, heat fluxes from 1.8 to 46 kW/m2 and saturation temperatures from -28 to +25 °C (reduced pressures from 0.21 to 0.87). The updated flow pattern map was compared to independent experimental data of flow patterns for CO2 in the literature and it predicts the flow patterns well. Then, a database of CO2 two-phase flow pressure drop results from the literature was set up and the database was compared to the leading empirical pressure drop models: the correlations by Chisholm , Friedel , Grönnerud  and Müller-Steinhagen and Heck , a modified Chisholm correlation by Yoon et al.  and the flow pattern based model of Moreno Quibén and Thome [8–10]. None of these models was able to predict the CO2 pressure drop data well. Therefore, a new flow pattern based phenomenological model of two-phase flow frictional pressure drop for CO2 was developed by modifying the model of Moreno Quibén and Thome using the updated flow pattern map in this study and it predicts the CO2 pressure drop database quite well overall.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2008|