An ideal hand prosthesis should provide satisfying functionality based on reliable decoding of the user’s intentions and deliver tactile feedback in a natural manner. The absence of tactile feedback impedes the functionality and efficiency of dexterous hand prostheses, which leads to a high rejection rate from prostheses users. Thus, it is expected that integration of tactile feedback with hand prostheses will improve the manipulation performance and enhance perceptual embodiment for users. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of non-invasive stimulation based tactile sensation for upper-extremity prostheses, from the physiology of the human skin, to tactile sensing techniques, noninvasive tactile stimulation, and an emphasis on electrotactile feedback. The paper concludes with a detailed discussion of recent applications, challenging issues, and future developments.
- tactile sensors