With the development of metallurgical industry and the improvement of continuous casting technology, the processing properties of casting technology equipment are being paid more attention. Ladle is one of the most representatives of the furnace equipment; higher requirements of ladle are put forward in response to the call for national energy-saving and emission reduction. According to the requirements of actual operator and working condition, a lining structure of a new type of ladle with nanometer adiabatic material is put forward. Based on heat transfer theory and finite element technology, the three-dimensional finite element model of a new type of ladle is established. Temperature field and stress field of the new type of ladle with the nanometer adiabatic material in lining structure after baking are analyzed. The results indicate that the distributions of temperature and thermal stress level of working layer, permanent layer, and nanometer heat insulating layer are similar, and they are in the permissible stress and temperature range of each material for the new type of ladle. Especially heat preservation effect of nanometer adiabatic material is excellent. Furthermore, the maximum temperature of shell for the new type of ladle drops to 114°C than the traditional ladle, and the maximum stress of shell for the new type of ladle is lower than the traditional ladle, that is, 114 MPa. It can provide reliable theory for energy-saving and emission reduction of metallurgy industry, which also points out the right direction for the future development of the iron and steel industry.