Numerical solutions to Einstein's equations in a shearing-dust universe: A code comparison

Julian Adamek, Cristian Barrera-Hinojosa, Marco Bruni, Baojiu Li, Hayley J. MacPherson, James B. Mertens

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A number of codes for general-relativistic simulations of cosmological structure formation have been developed in recent years. Here we demonstrate that a sample of these codes produce consistent results beyond the Newtonian regime. We simulate solutions to Einstein's equations dominated by gravitomagnetism-a vector-type gravitational field that does not exist in Newtonian gravity and produces frame-dragging, the leading-order post-Newtonian effect. We calculate the coordinate-invariant effect on intersecting null geodesics by performing ray tracing in each independent code. With this observable quantity, we assess and compare each code's ability to compute relativistic effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number154001
Number of pages22
JournalClassical and Quantum Gravity
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2020


  • cosmology
  • frame-dragging
  • general relativity
  • gravitomagnetism
  • numerical relativity
  • RCUK
  • STFC
  • ST/P000592/1
  • ST/S000550/1
  • ST/I00162X/1
  • ST/P000541/1
  • ST/K00042X/1
  • ST/P002293/1
  • ST/R002371/1
  • ST/S002502/1
  • ST/R000832/1


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