On the stability of the Einstein static universe

John D. Barrow, George F. R. Ellis, Roy Maartens, Christos G. Tsagas

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We show using covariant techniques that the Einstein static universe containing a perfect fluid is always neutrally stable against small inhomogeneous vector and tensor perturbations and neutrally stable against adiabatic scalar density inhomogeneities so long as c2s > 1/5, and unstable otherwise. We also show that the stability is not significantly changed by the presence of a self-interacting scalar field source, but we find that spatially homogeneous Bianchi type IX modes destabilize an Einstein static universe. The implications of these results for the initial state of the universe and its pre-inflationary evolution are also discussed
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)L155-L164
JournalClassical and Quantum Gravity
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2003


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