Optimal battery energy storage dispatch for the day-ahead electricity market

Julio Cesar Gonzalez-Saenz, Victor Becerra*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Downloads (Pure)


This work presents an innovative application of optimal control theory to the strategic
scheduling of battery storage in the day-ahead electricity market, focusing on enhancing profitability while factoring in battery degradation. This study incorporates the effects of battery degradation on the dynamics in the optimisation framework. Considering this cost in economic analysis and operational strategies is essential to optimise long-term performance and economic viability. Neglecting degradation costs can lead to suboptimal operation and dispatch strategies. We employ a continuous-time representation of the dynamics, in contrast with many other studies that use a discrete-time approximation with rather coarse intervals. We adopt an equivalent circuit model coupled with empirical degradation parameters to simulate a battery cell’s behaviour and degradation mechanisms with good support from experimental data. Utilising direct collocation methods with mesh refinement allows for precise numerical solutions to the complex, nonlinear dynamics involved. Through a detailed case study of Belgium’s day-ahead electricity market, we determine the optimal charging and discharging schedules under varying objectives: maximising net revenues, maximising profits considering capacity degradation, and maximising profits considering both capacity degradation and internal resistance increase due to degradation. The results demonstrate the viability of our approach and underscore the significance of integrating degradation costs into the market strategy for battery operators, alongside its effects on the battery’s dynamic behaviour. Our methodology extends previous work by offering a more comprehensive model that empirically captures the intricacies of battery degradation, including a fine and adaptive time domain representation, focusing on the day-ahead market, and utilising accurate direct methods for optimal control. This paper concludes with insights into the potential of optimal control applications in energy markets and suggestions for future research avenues.
Original languageEnglish
Article number228
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2024


  • collocation methods
  • optimal control
  • empirical battery model
  • day-ahead electricity market

Cite this