The intermittent nature of renewable sources, such as solar and wind, leads to the need for a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that can provide uninterrupted and reliable energy to a remote and off-grid location with the use of a biogas generator and battery. In the present study, conventional PV panels have been integrated with phase change material (PCM) for power enhancement. In addition, various configurations (i. PV-Wind-Battery system, ii. PV-PCM-Wind-Battery, iii. PV-Wind-Biogas-Battery and iv. PV-PCM-Wind-Biogas-Battery) have been compared for the hot and humid climatic location of Chennai, India. Optimization has been carried out to minimize the cost of energy and the net present cost has also been computed. It has been found that the integration of PCM with the PV-Wind-Biogas-Battery-based off-grid system results in savings of USD 0.22 million in terms of net present cost and reduces the cost of energy from USD 0.099/kWh to USD 0.094/kWh. Similarly, for another off-grid HRES configuration of PV-Wind-Battery, the integration of PCM results in savings of USD 0.17 million, and reduces the cost of energy from USD 0.12/kWh to USD 0.105/kWh.
- hybrid renewable energy system
- solar photovoltaics
- phase change material
- net present cost
- cost of energy