Paleo- and mesoarchean TTG-sanukitoid to high-K granite cycles in the southern são francisco craton, SE brazil

Claudio De Morisson Valeriano, Caio Vinicius Gabrig Turbay, Henrique Bruno, Antonio Simonetti, Monica Heilbron, Samuel Moreira Bersan, Rob Strachan

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Abstract

The generation of the Earth́s continental crust is widely accepted to have taken place predominantly in the Archean, when TTG magmatism associated with greenstone-belt supracrustal succession development was typically followed by emplacement of high-K granites before crustal stabilization. This study focuses on the Campos Gerais complex (CGC), which is an Archean granite-greenstone belt lithological association in a tectonic window located in the southwesternmost portion of the São Francisco craton (SFC). The CGC is an important segment of Paleo- to Mesoarchean continental crust to be integrated into paleogeographic reconstructions prior to the transition into the Paleoproterozoic. This investigation reports field relationships, 28 major and trace element compositions, U–Pb (zircon) geochronological results, and Hf and Sm–Nd isotope data for orthogneiss and amphibolite samples. The results indicate that the CGC records a complex Archean crustal evolution, where voluminous 2.97 Ga TTG tonalites and trondhjemites (εNd(t) = −4.7; ΤDM = 3.24 Ga) were followed by 2.89 Ga sanukitoid tonalite production (εNd(t) = −1.9; ΤDM = 3.02 Ga), broadly coeval with the development of the Fortaleza de Minas and Pitangui greenstone-belts. These events are interpreted to represent the initial stage of an important subduction-accretion tectonic cycle, which ended with the emplacement of 2.82–2.81 Ga high-K leucogranites and migmatization of the TTG-sanukitoid crust, with hybrid and two-mica, peraluminous compositions (εNd(t) = −8.0 to −8.6; ΤDM = 3.57 – 3.34 Ga). The presence of inherited zircons with 207Pb/206Pb ages of 3.08 Ga, 3.29 Ga, 3.55 Ga and 3.62 Ga indicates that the Mesoarchean tectonic processes involved reworking of Meso- to Eo-archean crust. Renewed TTG magmatism took place at ca. 2.77 Ga represented by juvenile tonalite stocks (εNd(t) = +1.0 to −1.5; ΤDM = 2.80 – 2.88 Ga) which intrude the TTG-greenstone belt association. Crustal stabilization was attained by 2.67 Ga, allowing for the emplacement of within-plate tholeiitic amphibolites (εNd(t) = −3.1; ΤDM = 2.87 Ga). The CGC shows important tectonic diachronism with respect to other Archean terrains in the southern São Francisco craton, including an independent Meso- to Neoarchean crustal evolution.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101372
Number of pages46
JournalGeoscience Frontiers
Early online date18 Feb 2022
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online - 18 Feb 2022

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