Parasitism in optima forma: Exploiting the host fibrinolytic system for invasion

Lourdes Figuera, Amaranta Gómez-Arreaza, Luisana Avilán*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The interaction of pathogenic bacteria with the host fibrinolytic system through the plasminogen molecule has been well documented. It has been shown, using animal models, to be important in invasion into the host and establishment of the infection. From a number of recent observations with parasitic protists and helminths, emerges evidence that also in these organisms the interaction with plasminogen may be important for infection and virulence. A group of molecules that act as plasminogen receptors have been identified in parasites. This group comprises the glycolytic enzymes enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, in common with the plasminogen receptors known in prokaryotic pathogens. The interaction with the fibrinolytic system may arm the parasites with the host protease plasmin, thus helping them to migrate and cross barriers, infect cells and avoid clot formation. In this context, plasminogen receptors on the parasite surface or as secreted molecules, may be considered virulence factors. A possible evolutionary scenario for the recruitment of glycolytic enzymes as plasminogen receptors by widely different pathogens is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-23
Number of pages8
JournalActa Tropica
Issue number1
Early online date10 Jul 2013
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013


  • Animals
  • Bacteria/enzymology
  • Fibrinolysis
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Humans
  • Parasites/enzymology
  • Plasminogen/metabolism
  • Plasminogen Activators/metabolism
  • Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism


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