The aquatic hyphomycete genus Sigmoidea, with freshwater and marine representatives, is re-examined at the morphological and molecular levels. Currently six species are accepted, four from freshwater habitats (S. prolifera, S. aurantiaca, S. contorta, S. praelonga) and two marine species (S. marina, S. luteola). Phylogenetic analyses of the ribosomal small subunit rRNA gene sequences of freshwater and marine Sigmoidea species indicate that the marine species are distantly placed from the freshwater species, S. prolifera and Pseudosigmoidea cranei. The latter species are placed in the Dothideomycetes, in sister clades, with 81% bootstrap support. The phylogenetic placement of both marine Sigmoidea species, inferred from large subunit rRNA gene sequences, was within the genus Corollospora (Halosphaeriales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina). An undescribed Sigmoidea species isolated from the Baltic Sea and one previously incorrectly identified as S. marina from Japan (S. parvula sp. nov.) formed a clade together with Corollospora quin-queseptata and Varicosporina ramulosa, and were located in a sister group to S. luteola and S. marina. Based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence, Halosigmoidea gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate the three marine Sigmoidea species (S. luteola, S. marina, S. parvula sp. nov.). Identification keys to the genera Halosigmoidea, Pseudosigmoidea and Sigmoidea, and Halosigmoidea species are provided.