Neuroinflammation is the foremost defense reaction of the nervous system to most if not all insults. Injuries to the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS) are followed by immediate activation of innate immune cells and infiltration of peripheral immune cells, amid waves of upregulation of numerous inflammatory mediators. Prolonged inflammation can lead to secondary tissue damage and prohibit regeneration of the injured nervous system. The regulation of inflammation and neuroregeneration are orchestrated through a complex network of signal transduction. Interestingly, many molecules play pleiotropic roles in both processes. Growing evidence implicates a handful of axon regeneration regulators in the processes of neuroinflammation, among which are the myelin and glial scar associated axon growth inhibitors and their axonal receptors. In this article, we will review the roles of these canonical axon regeneration regulators in neuroinflammation.
- Axon regeneration
- Myelin-associated inhibitors and receptors