We convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of nonfreezing cold injuries (NFCIs; trench foot and immersion foot) and warm water immersion injuries (warm water immersion foot and tropical immersion foot) in prehospital and hospital settings. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according to the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. Treatment is more difficult with NFCIs than with warm water immersion injuries. In contrast to warm water immersion injuries that usually resolve without sequelae, NFCIs may cause prolonged debilitating symptoms, including neuropathic pain and cold sensitivity.
|Journal||Wilderness and Environmental Medicine|
|Early online date||30 Apr 2023|
|Publication status||Early online - 30 Apr 2023|