Prevention and Treatment of Nonfreezing Cold Injuries and Warm Water Immersion Tissue Injuries: Supplement to Wilderness Medical Society Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Frostbite

Ken Zafren, Sarah Hollis, Eric A. Weiss, Daniel Danzl, Jessie Wilburn, Nadia Kimmel, Chris Imray, Gordon Giesbrecht, Mike Tipton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of nonfreezing cold injuries (NFCIs; trench foot and immersion foot) and warm water immersion injuries (warm water immersion foot and tropical immersion foot) in prehospital and hospital settings. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according to the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. Treatment is more difficult with NFCIs than with warm water immersion injuries. In contrast to warm water immersion injuries that usually resolve without sequelae, NFCIs may cause prolonged debilitating symptoms, including neuropathic pain and cold sensitivity.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWilderness and Environmental Medicine
Early online date30 Apr 2023
Publication statusEarly online - 30 Apr 2023

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