Primary school design: co-creation with children

Rokhshid Ghaziani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The school environment affects children's health, emotions and learning. The good design of school buildings makes these places more pleasant and more functional. Children's views are important and need to be more effectively integrated in the school design project, especially after the pandemic as many schools had to re-design their spaces. However, there are challenges for academics, designers and policymakers in determining which methods are appropriate for listening to children's views and ensuring their effective participation. The study aims to evaluate the different ways in which children could get involved in designing schools, and to identify spatial design trends from the perspective of the children.

Design/methodology/approach: For this study, qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. Various data collection techniques were drawings, model making and questionnaires. The empirical study was undertaken by 120 children (8–10 years old), who designed three spaces in two Primary Schools in England.

Findings: This paper discusses the change in use of spaces for current and future (post-COVID) school design and the need for multi-purpose spaces that can flip form one to another. The findings highlight the importance of involving children in the school design process that could then inform the decision-making processes of architects and designers. The findings would have implications for school design practice, demonstrating how research can be embedded in primary schools to evaluate the quality of indoor and outdoor spaces.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-299
Issue number2
Early online date30 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Participatory design
  • Biophilic design
  • Co-creation methods
  • Co-design with children
  • Primary school design


Dive into the research topics of 'Primary school design: co-creation with children'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this