Pulling for the team: competition between political partisans

Lingbo Huang, Peter DeScioli, Zahra Murad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To compete for power and resources, people form groups including political parties, special interest groups, and international coalitions. We use economic experiments to investigate how people balance the desire for their group’s victory versus their own expenditure of effort. We design an economic tug of war in which the side that exerts greater costly effort wins a prize. In Experiment 1, participants compete individually or in teams, which were assigned arbitrarily. In Experiment 2, participants compete individually or in teams based on political partisanship, Democrats against Republicans. In both experiments, participants shirked by exerting 20% less effort in teams than in individual competition. Moreover, we did not find an effect of partisan framing: Participants exerted no more effort on political teams than arbitrary teams, contrary to theories asserting the automatic potency of partisanship. We discuss why it is difficult for groups, including political partisans, to mobilize in competition
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalEvolutionary Psychological Science
Early online date6 Jan 2021
Publication statusEarly online - 6 Jan 2021


  • group competition
  • political partisanship
  • contest games
  • shirking
  • free-riding


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