In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy resources, which has led to the need for large-scale Energy Storage units in the electric grid. Currently, Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Pumped Hydro Storage (PHES) are the main commercially available large-scale energy storage technologies. However, these technologies are restricted geographically and can require fossil fuel streams to heat the air. Thus, there is a need to develop novel large-scale energy storage technologies that do not suffer from the abovementioned drawbacks. Among the in-development, large-scale Energy Storage Technologies, Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), or Pumped Heat Energy Storage, stands out as the most promising due to its long cycle life, lack of geographical limitations, the absence of fossil fuel streams, and the possibility of integrating it with conventional fossil-fuel power plants. There have been a number of PTES systems proposed using different thermodynamic cycles, including the Brayton cycle, the Rankine cycle, and the transcritical Rankine cycle. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of PTES concepts, as well as the common thermodynamic cycles they implement, indicating their individual strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, the paper provides a comprehensive reference for planning and integrating various types of PTES into energy systems.
- Joule–Brayton pumped thermal energy storage
- Rankine PTES
- transcritical Rankine cycle
- large-scale technologies