## Abstract

The probability density of a quantum particle moving freely within a circular ring can exhibit local flow patterns inconsistent with its angular momentum, a phenomenon known as quantum backflow. In this study, we examine a quantum particle confined to a ring and prepared in a state composed of a fixed (yet arbitrary) number of lowest-energy eigenstates with nonnegative angular momentum. We investigate the time-dependent behavior of the probability current at a specified point along the ring's circumference. We establish precise lower and upper bounds for this probability current, thereby delineating the exact scope of the quantum backflow effect. We also present an analytical expression for a quantum state that yields a record-high backflow probability transfer, reaching over 95% of the theoretical bound. Furthermore, our investigation yields compelling numerical and analytical evidence supporting the conjecture that the current-versus-time function associated with states maximizing backflow probability transfer forms a fractal curve with a dimension of 7/4. The observed fractality may provide a characteristic, experimentally relevant signature of quantum backflow near the probability-transfer bound.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 022216 |

Number of pages | 11 |

Journal | Physical Review A |

Volume | 110 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 12 Aug 2024 |