Regulation of LXR by fatty acids, insulin, growth hormone and tumor necrosis factor-α in rainbow trout myocytes

Lourdes Cruz-Garcia, Joan Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joaquim Gutiérrez, Isabel Navarro

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The liver X receptor (LXR) has recently been described in salmonids. In mammals, this receptor is already known as a transcriptional factor that regulates diverse aspects of cholesterol, fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in various tissues, including muscle. Here we examined LXR in trout myocytes. For this purpose, we analyzed LXR target gene expression and gene profile during myocyte development. In addition, we studied the transcriptional regulation of LXR by hormones, a pro-inflammatory mediator and unsaturated fatty acids. Trout myocytes were incubated with LXR agonists (T091317, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol) and unsaturated fatty acids for 24 h. Furthermore, differentiated myocytes were incubated with insulin and growth hormone (GH) for 3 h, 6 h and 18 h, and with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) for 24 h. Samples were also obtained in various stages of cell differentiation. Our results demonstrate that lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and β (PPARα, β) are target genes of LXR in trout muscle. LXR agonists increased LXR expression, thereby indicating that this receptor is autoregulated. Unsaturated fatty acids downregulated LXR gene expression. This observation suggests a regulatory mechanism of these molecules on LXR-mediated fatty acid synthesis and uptake. TNFα did not modulate LXR gene transcription. Expression of the LXR gene was activated by insulin and GH. These results suggest that LXR may play a lipogenic role through insulin stimulation and a tendency to promote anabolic effects through GH on trout myocytes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-136
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes


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