Remediation methods of heavy metal contaminated soils from environmental and geotechnical standpoints

Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Faisal Junaid, Nauman Ijaz, Usama Khalid, Zain Ijaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS) threatens world health and sustainable growth, owing to which numerous remediation methods have been devised. Meanwhile, environmental sustainability and geotechnical serviceability of remediated HMCS are important considerations for reusing such soils and achieving sustainable development goals; therefore, these considerations are critically reviewed in this article. For this purpose, different onsite and offsite remediation methods are evaluated from environmental and geotechnical standpoints. It was found that each remediation method has its own merits and limitations in terms of environmental sustainability and geotechnical serviceability; generally, sustainable green remediation (SGR) and cementation are regarded as effective solutions for the problems related to the former and latter, respectively. Overall, the impact of remediation techniques on the environment and geotechnical serviceability is a developing area of study that calls for increased efforts to improve the serviceability, sustainability, reusability and environmental friendliness of the remediated HMCS.
Original languageEnglish
Article number161468
Number of pages18
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Early online date12 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • Heavy metal contaminated soils
  • Hazardous material
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Geotechnical serviceability
  • Remediation methods

Cite this