Research has been carried out in the last few years on the sleep problems of children with Down syndrome and the associations between these problems, learning, behavior and family factors. The children studied were generally of school age and attending either mainstream or special schools. The research program, which has involved a number of novel approaches to these neglected problems, has raised various issues which call for further investigation but the main findings already have implications for the care by both professionals and parents of children with Down syndrome. This account describes in general terms such findings and implications. Further details are available in the selected references provided.