Recent regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies (using cells, scaffolds, medical devices and gene therapy) have led to fascinating progress of translation of basic research towards clinical applications. In the past decade, great deal of research has focused on developing various three dimensional (3D) organs, such as bone, skin, liver, kidney and ear, using such strategies in order to replace or regenerate damaged organs for the purpose of maintaining or restoring organs' functions that may have been lost due to aging, accident or disease. The surface properties of a material or a device are key aspects in determining the success of the implant in biomedicine, as the majority of biological reactions in human body occur on surfaces or interfaces. Furthermore, it has been established in the literature that cell adhesion and proliferation are, to a great extent, influenced by the micro- and nano-surface characteristics of biomaterials and devices. In addition, it has been shown that the functions of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells in particular, could be regulated through physical interaction with specific nanotopographical cues. Therefore, guided stem cell proliferation, differentiation and function are of great importance in the regeneration of 3D tissues and organs using tissue engineering strategies. This review will provide an update on the impact of nanotopography on mesenchymal stem cells for the purpose of developing laboratory-based 3D organs and tissues, as well as the most recent research and case studies on this topic.
- mesenchymal stem cells
- tissue engineering
- three dimensional organs/tissues