Second law of information dynamics

Melvin Vopson, Serban Lepadatu

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One of the most powerful laws in physics is the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of any system remains constant or increases over time. In fact, the second law is applicable to the evolution of the entire universe and Clausius stated, “The entropy of the universe tends to a maximum”. Here we examine the time evolution of information systems, defined as physical systems containing information states within Shannon’s information theory framework. Our observations allow the introduction of the second law of information dynamics (infodynamics). Using two different information systems, digital data storage and a biological RNA genome, we demonstrate that the second law of infodynamics requires the information entropy to remain constant or to decrease over time. This is exactly the opposite to the evolution of the physical entropy, as dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. The surprising result obtained here has massive implications for future developments in genomic research, evolutionary biology, computing, big data, physics and cosmology.
Original languageEnglish
Article number075310
Number of pages6
JournalAIP Advances
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2022


  • second law of thermodynamics
  • information physics
  • information entropy
  • biological information systems
  • genetic mutations
  • second law of infodynamics


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