Three species within a deeply branching cluster of the Chloroflexi are the only microorganisms currently known to anaerobically transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the mechanism of reductive dechlorination. A selective PCR primer set was designed that amplifies the 16S rRNA genes of a monophyletic group within the Chloroflexi including Dehalococcoides spp. and the o-17/DF-1 group. Assays for both qualitative and quantitative analyses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and most probable number-PCR, respectively, were developed to assess sediment microcosm enrichments that reductively dechlorinated PCBs 101 (2,2′,4,5,5′-CB) and 132 (2,2′,3,3′,4,6′-CB). PCB 101 was reductively dechlorinated at the para-flanked meta position to PCB 49 (2,2′,4,5′-CB) by phylotype DEH10, which belongs to the Dehalococcoides group. This same species reductively dechlorinated the para- and ortho-flanked meta-chlorine of PCB 132 to PCB 91 (2,2′,3′,4,6′-CB). However, another phylotype designated SF1, which is more closely related to the o-17/DF-1 group, was responsible for the subsequent dechlorination of PCB 91 to PCB 51 (2,2′,4,6′-CB). Using the selective primer set, an increase in 16S rRNA gene copies was observed only with actively dechlorinating cultures, indicating that PCB-dechlorinating activities by both phylotype DEH10 and SF1 were linked to growth. The results suggest that individual species within the Chloroflexi exhibit a limited range of congener specificities and that a relatively diverse community of species within a deeply branching group of Chloroflexi with complementary congener specificities is likely required for the reductive dechlorination of different PCBs congeners in the environment.