Objectives: This study aims to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel and the distribution of failure modes of brackets bonded using a new self-adhering flowable resin composite (Vertise Flow, VF), with or without preliminary phosphoric acid etching (PAE).
Materials and methods: Eighty extracted premolars were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20): (1) etch-and-rinse adhesive (E&R), PAE/Transbond XT Primer/Transbond XT Paste (3M Unitek); (2) self-etch adhesive (SE), Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer (3M Unitek)/Transbond XT Paste; (3) VF; (4) PAE/VF. In each group, 10 bracketed teeth were debonded within 30 min, while the remaining teeth were subjected to thermocycling before testing. SBS and adhesive remnant index were recorded.
Results: SE measured significantly lower early SBS than PAE/VF. Early SBSs recorded by VF were slightly higher yet statistically similar to those of E&R. Such levels of adhesion were achieved by VF regardless of preliminary PAE. After thermocycling, VF measured the lowest SBS. When debonded early, VF and SE tended to leave less residues on enamel surface than E&R. After thermocycling, the failure pattern changed significantly for VF and PAE/VF specimens that all exhibited adhesive failures at the tooth-bracket interface.
Conclusions: VF achieved early bracket SBSs similar to E&R. Following thermocycling, VF and PAE/VF manifested a significant decrease in SBS.
Clinical relevance: Although the simplified handling and the satisfactory early SBS of VF may prompt its use for bracket bonding, the decrease in retention noted after thermocycling warns that the issue of bond durability should be thoroughly addressed prior to endorsing this clinical application of VF.
- adhesive remnant index (ARI)
- bond strength
- etch-and-rinse adhesive
- orthodontic brackets
- self-adhering flowable composite
- self-etch adhesive