Single-mismatch 2LSB embedding method of steganography

Omed Khalind, Benjamin Aziz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

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This paper proposes a new method of 2LSB embedding steganography in still images. The proposed method considers a single mismatch in each 2LSB embedding between the 2LSB of the pixel value and the 2-bits of the secret message, while the 2LSB replacement overwrites the 2LSB of the image’s pixel value with 2-bits of the secret message. The number of bit-changes needed for the proposed method is 0.375 bits from the 2LSBs of the cover image, and is much less than the 2LSB replacement which is 0.5 bits. It also reduces the effect of 2LSB embedding pattern of change, which results in lower probability of detection by 44% according to experimental results.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT 2013), Athens, Greece
Place of PublicationPiscataway
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)978-1479947966
ISBN (Print)978-1479947959
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2014


  • PSNR
  • LSB mismatch
  • 2LSB embedding
  • steganography
  • steganalysis


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