Small object detection is the main challenge for image detection of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially with small pixel ratios and blurred boundaries. In this paper, a one-stage detector (SF-SSD) is proposed with a new spatial cognition algorithm. The deconvolution operation is introduced to a feature fusion module, which enhances the representation of shallow features. These more representative features prove effective for small-scale object detection. Empowered by a spatial cognition method, the deep model can re-detect objects with less-reliable confidence scores. This enables the detector to improve detection accuracy significantly. Both between-class similarity and within-class similarity are fully exploited to suppress useless background information. This motivates the proposed model to take full use of semantic features in the detection process of multi-class small objects. A simplified network structure can improve the speed of object detection. The experiments are conducted on a newly collected dataset (SY-UAV) and the benchmark datasets (CARPK and PUCPR+). To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the spatial cognition module, a multi-class object detection experiment is conducted on the Stanford Drone dataset (SDD). The results show that the proposed model achieves high frame rates and better detection accuracies than the state-of-the-art methods, which are 90.1% (CAPPK), 90.8% (PUCPR+), and 91.2% (SDD).
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems|
|Early online date||2 Nov 2021|
|Publication status||Early online - 2 Nov 2021|
- UAV imagery
- Feature fusion
- Small object detection
- deep learning