Spinal joint moment prediction following simulated breast surgery using a female whole-body musculoskeletal model

Chris Mills, Timothy A. Exell, Joanna Wakefield-Scurr, Edward R. St john, Melissa E. A. Jones

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This study aimed to use a musculoskeletal model to predict changes in spinal moments following simulated breast surgery. A female full body musculoskeletal model with a fully articulated thoracolumbar spine and independent moveable breast segments was customised for this study. Key findings suggest that the simulated removal of breast tissue (750 g to 1501 g) can reduce the magnitude of lumbar spine extensor moments by >0.05 Nm/kg during walking and jogging. A customised female whole-body musculoskeletal model is capable of providing a first approximation of changes in spinal loading following simulated breast surgery.
Original languageEnglish
JournalComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Early online date22 Jun 2024
Publication statusEarly online - 22 Jun 2024


  • Simulation
  • rehabilitation
  • spine
  • mastectomy

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