With a population of over 20 million, the central African nation of Cameroon has over 200 ethnic groups speaking over 230 languages. Its triple colonial heritage makes it a unique nation, fused with many political, economic and social complexities. This country profile provides a review of how sport is organised and governed and begins with an overview of the democratic and postcolonial past it has witnessed since independence was gained in 1961. Sport is popular in Cameroon, and its development is largely led by the central government. The profile begins with a discussion of the key sport policy developments in recent years and in particular the rise in the popularity of football over other sporting codes, and how this intersects positively and negatively with politics. Next, the organisation and structure of sport in Cameroon are outlined, specifically school sport, elite sport and disability sports provision. The profile notes a small yet emergent non-state-led sector, which uses sport for development purposes, which is driven in the main by international organisations and donors. Finally, the key priorities and associated challenges for Cameroon sport are discussed, including the desire to grow the nation’s sporting infrastructure in order to host international sports competitions.