Stereotypical verbal and nonverbal responses while deceiving others

Aldert Vrij, K. Edward, Ray Bull

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This experiment examined the impact of public self-consciousness and acting ability on processes and stereotypical responses during deception. Seventy-three nursing students were videotaped while (a) telling the truth and (b) lying about a theft they had observed. A variety of cues were coded, including criteria-based content analysis (CBCA) and reality monitoring (RM), in which high scores indicated honest responding. Compared with truth tellers, liars waited longer before giving an answer, spoke faster, made more speech hesitations, showed fewer illustrators, and showed lower CBCA and RM scores. Public self-consciousness was positively correlated with trying to control behavior but negatively correlated with RM scores. Ability to act was negatively correlated with RM scores, with showing stereotypical deceptive facial behavior (gaze aversion and smiling), with having to think hard while lying, and with being nervous while lying.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)899-909
Number of pages11
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2001


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