Strategic monitoring for the European Water Framework Directive

I. Allan, Graham Mills, Bran Vrana, J. Knutsson, A. Holmberg, N. Guigues, S. Laschi, A. Fouillac, Richard Greenwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article first reviews the principal monitoring requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union (EU) and assesses how contaminant monitoring may fit into a risk-assessment approach. In this context, we show the limited ability of conventional trace-contaminant-monitoring methods to fulfil all of the WFD requirements. We then clearly define and exemplify the roles and the functions of a new set of monitoring tools, using three case studies based on datasets that we obtained during a field trial in the River Meuse as part of the Screening methods for Water data InFormaTion (SWIFT-WFD) project in support of implementing the WFD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)704-715
Number of pages12
JournalTrends in Analytical Chemistry
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2006


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